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Analyzing Water-Use Behavior in U.S. Households


USEPA, Human Resources Research Branch of the Human Exposure and Atmospheric Science Division in Las Vegas, Nevada (HEASD-L). The contract was managed by Anteon Corporation, Las Vegas, Nevada.

In this report, frequencies and durations of use of showers, baths, clothes washers, dishwashers, toilets and faucets are presented and compared for various demographic groups derived from analyses of the National Human Activities Pattern Survey (NHAPS) database, the Residential End Uses of Water Study (REUWS) database, the Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS), as well as from current literature and manufacturer information. Volumes and flowrates are also analyzed from REUWS for the various water uses. Furthermore, tap water ingestion data are analyzed for various population groups derived from the Continuing Survey of Food Intake by Individuals (CSFII) as well as from NHAPS and current literature. Typical parameters of indoor water-uses are presented and recommended for use in human exposure modeling.


Executive Summary:

To view the executive summary of the final report for this project, click on the link below.

Report Summary


Full Report:

To download the full report, click on the link below:

Quantification of Exposure-Related Water Uses for Various U.S. Subpopulations


The citation for this EPA report is as follows:

Wilkes CR, Hern SC, Mason AD, Niang LL, and KL Jensen. 2005. Quantification of exposure-related water uses for various U.S. subpopulations. USEPA Exposure and Dose Research Branch. EPA/600/R-06/003.

To request more information send mail to c.wilkes@wilkestech.com
Last modified: November 2006